2,582 Works

Pressure-Induced Large Emission Enhancements of Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals.

Guanjun Xiao, Yingnan Wang, Dong Han, Kexue Li, Xiaolei Feng, Pengfei Lv, Kai Wang, Lei Liu, Simon Redfern & Bo Zou
Pressure-quenching of optical emission largely limits the potential application of many materials in optical pressure-sensing devices, since emission intensity is crucially connected to performance. Boosting visible-light emission at high pressure is, therefore, an important goal. Here, we demonstrate that the emission of CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude by compression. The brightest emission can be achieved at pressures corresponding to the phase transitions in different sized CdSe NCs....

Quantitative Gait Analysis Using a Motorized Treadmill System Sensitively Detects Motor Abnormalities in Mice Expressing ATPase Defective Spastin

James W. Connell, Rachel Allison & Evan Reid
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetic conditions in which there is progressive axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. Autosomal dominant mutations, including nonsense, frameshift and missense changes, in the gene encoding the microtubule severing ATPase spastin are the most common cause of HSP in North America and northern Europe. In this study we report quantitative gait analysis using a motorized treadmill system, carried out on mice knocked-in for a disease-associated mutation affecting a critical...

Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults.

Mariaelisa Graff, Robert A Scott, Anne E Justice, Kristin L Young, Mary F Feitosa, Llilda Barata, Thomas W Winkler, Audrey Y Chu, Anubha Mahajan, David Hadley, Luting Xue, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Marcel Den Hoed, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Qibin Qi, Julius S Ngwa, Frida Renström, Lydia Quaye, John D Eicher, James E Hayes, Marilyn Cornelis, Zoltan Kutalik, Elise Lim, Jian'an Luan … & Tuomas O Kilpeläinen

UCP1 deficiency causes brown fat respiratory chain depletion and sensitizes mitochondria to calcium overload-induced dysfunction.

Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Irina G Stavrovskaya, Gina Z Lu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Daniel F Egan, Manju Kumari, Xingxing Kong, Brian K Erickson, John Szpyt, Evan D Rosen, Michael Murphy, Bruce S Kristal, Steven P Gygi & Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria exhibit high oxidative capacity and abundant expression of both electron transport chain components and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 dissipates the mitochondrial proton motive force (Δp) generated by the respiratory chain and increases thermogenesis. Here we find that in mice genetically lacking UCP1, cold-induced activation of metabolism triggers innate immune signaling and markers of cell death in BAT. Moreover, global proteomic analysis reveals that this cascade induced by UCP1 deletion...

Shape and energy consistent pseudopotentials for correlated electron systems

John Trail & Richard Needs
A method is developed for generating pseudopotentials for use in correlated-electron calculations. The paradigms of shape and energy consistency are combined and defined in terms of correlated-electron wave-functions. The resulting energy consistent correlated electron pseudopotentials (eCEPPs) are constructed for H, Li–F, Sc–Fe, and Cu. Their accuracy is quantified by comparing the relaxed molecular geometries and dissociation energies which they provide with all electron results, with all quantities evaluated using coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples...

Synthesis, in Vitro Evaluation, and Radiolabelling of Fluorinated Puromycin Analogues: Potential Candidates for PET Imaging of Protein Synthesis

HM Betts, Selena Milicevic Sephton, C Tong, RO Awais, PJ Hill, AC Perkins & Franklin Aigbirhio
There is currently no ideal radiotracer for imaging protein synthesis rate (PSR) by positron emission tomography (PET). Existing fluorine-18 labelled amino acid-based radiotracers predominantly visualize amino acid transporter processes, and in many cases they are not incorporated into nascent proteins at all. Others are radiolabelled with the short half-life positron emitter carbon-11 which is rather impractical for many PET centers. Based on the puromycin (6) structural manifold, a series of 10 novel derivatives of 6...

Remobilization of crustal carbon dominates volcanic arc emissions

Marie Edmonds, Emily Mason & Alexandra Turchyn
The flux of carbon into and out of Earth’s surface environment has implications for Earth’s climate and habitability. We compiled a global dataset for carbon and helium isotopes from volcanic arcs and demonstrated that the carbon isotope composition of mean global volcanic gas is considerably heavier, at -3.8 to -4.6 ‰, than the canonical Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt value of -6.0 ‰. The largest volcanic emitters outgas carbon with higher δ13C and are located in mature continental...

Genomic Comparison of the Closely Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Dublin.

Laura Betancor, Lucía Yim, Arací Martínez, Maria Fookes, Sebastian Sasias, Felipe Schelotto, Nicholas Thomson, Duncan Maskell & José A Chabalgoity

Development of Cell-Permeable, Non-Helical Constrained Peptides to Target a Key Protein-Protein Interaction in Ovarian Cancer.

Mareike M Wiedmann, Yaw Sing Tan, Yuteng Wu, Shintaro Aibara, Wenshu Xu, Hannah Sore, Chandra S Verma, Laura Itzhaki, Murray Stewart, James Brenton & David Spring
There is a lack of current treatment options for ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and the cancer is often resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. Hence there is an urgent need for novel therapeutics. The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) is ubiquitously overexpressed in CCC and is seen as an attractive therapeutic target. This was validated through shRNA-mediated knockdown of the target protein, HNF1β, in five high- and low-HNF1β-expressing CCC lines. To inhibit the protein...

Community outbreaks of group A Streptococcus revealed by genome sequencing

C Turner, L Bedford, N Brown, K Judge, Mili Torok, Julian Parkhill & Sharon Peacock
The frequent occurrence of disease outbreaks in humans caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an on-going public health threat. Conventional bacterial typing methods lack the discriminatory power to confidently confirm or refute outbreaks in hospital and community settings. Microbial whole genome sequencing (WGS) provides a potential solution to this, but, there has been limited population-based surveillance with accompanying sequence data. We performed retrospective genomic surveillance of 93 clinical GAS isolates from individuals in a...

Ultrafast, Polarized, Single-Photon Emission from m-Plane InGaN Quantum Dots on GaN Nanowires.

Tim J Puchtler, Tong Wang, Christopher X Ren, Fengzai Tang, Rachel Oliver, Robert A Taylor & Tongtong Zhu
We demonstrate single-photon emission from self-assembled m-plane InGaN quantum dots (QDs) embedded on the side-walls of GaN nanowires. A combination of electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, time-resolved microphotoluminescence (μPL), and photon autocorrelation experiments give a thorough evaluation of the QD structural and optical properties. The QD exhibits antibunched emission up to 100 K, with a measured autocorrelation function of g(2)(0) = 0.28(0.03) at 5 K. Studies on a statistically significant number of QDs show that these m-plane...

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9 and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2

Claudia-Gabriela Mitrofan, Appleby, GB Nash, Ziad Mallat, Edwin Chilvers, Paul Upton & Nicholas Morrell
Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that while BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergised with Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase...

Brain hypoxia mapping in acute stroke: Back-to-back T2′ MR versus 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET in rodents

U Jensen-Kondering, Roido Manavaki, S Ejaz, Stephen Sawiak, Thomas Carpenter, Timothy Fryer, Franklin Aigbirhio, DJ Williamson & J-C Baron
Background Mapping the hypoxic brain in acute ischemic stroke has considerable potential for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PET using (18)F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO) is the reference method; however, it lacks clinical accessibility and involves radiation exposure. MR-based T2' mapping may identify tissue hypoxia and holds clinical potential. However, its validation against FMISO imaging is lacking. Here we implemented back-to-back FMISO-PET and T2' MR in rodents subjected to acute middle cerebral artery occlusion. For direct clinical relevance,...

NBEAL2 is required for neutrophil and NK cell function and pathogen defense.

John Sowerby, Thomas Thomas, Simon Clare, Marion Espéli, Jose A Guerrero, Kim Hoenderdos, Katherine Harcourt, Morgan Marsden, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Mathew Clement, Robin Antrobus, Yagnesh Umrania, Philippa R Barton, Shaun M Flint, Jatinder K Juss, Alison M Condliffe, Paul Lyons, Ian R Humphreys, Edwin Chilvers, Willem Ouwehand, Gordon Dougan & Kenneth Smith

Tony Lawson's Theory of the Corporation: Towards a Social Ontology of Law

Simon Deakin
In his account of the corporation as a ‘community’, Tony Lawson advances a materialist theory of social reality to argue for the existence of emergent social structures based on collective practices and behaviours, distinguishing his position from John Searle’s theory of social reality as consisting of declarative speech acts. Lawson’s and Searle’s accounts are examined for what they imply about the relationship between social structures and legal concepts. It is argued that legal concepts are...

Polyglutamine tracts regulate autophagy.

Avraham Ashkenazi, Carla F Bento, Thomas Ricketts, Mariella Vicinanza, Farah Siddiqi, Mariana Pavel, Ferdinando Squitieri, Maarten C Hardenberg, Sara Imarisio, Fiona M Menzies & David Rubinsztein
Expansions of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in different proteins cause 9 neurodegenerative conditions, such as Huntington disease and various ataxias. However, many normal mammalian proteins contain shorter polyQ tracts. As these are frequently conserved in multiple species, it is likely that some of these polyQ tracts have important but unknown biological functions. Here we review our recent study showing that the polyQ domain of the deubiquitinase ATXN3/ataxin-3 enables its interaction with BECN1/beclin 1, a key macroautophagy/autophagy...

dfrA thyA Double Deletion in para-Aminosalicylic Acid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains.

Danesh Moradigaravand, Louis Grandjean, Elena Martinez, Hao Li, Jun Zheng, Jorge Coronel, David Moore, M Estée Török, Vitali Sintchenko, Hairong Huang, Babak Javid, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock & Claudio U Köser

Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction: An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis

E Paige, Jessica Barrett, Lisa Pennells, Michael Sweeting, P Willeit, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, V Gudnason, BG Nordestgaard, BM Psaty, U Goldbourt, LG Best, G Assmann, JT Salonen, PJ Nietert, WM Verschuren, EJ Brunner, RA Kronmal, V Salomaa, SJ Bakker, GR Dagenais, S Sato, J-H Jansson, J Willeit, A Onat, AG De La Cámara … & Angela Wood
The added value of incorporating information from repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has not been rigorously assessed. We used data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration on 191,445 adults (38 cohorts from across 17 countries with data from 1962-2014) with > 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction...

The costs of saving nature: Does it make “cents”?

Andrew Tanentzap
Clearing wild forests to grow food, fibre, and fuel products can deliver large financial gains. However, the benefits that people obtain from forests—known as ecosystem services—are rarely considered in economic calculations, partly because there are few markets onto which they can be traded. In some regions, the benefits delivered by nature might be more economically valuable. A new study maps where it is profitable to replace tropical forests with cropland and how this might change...

Research Data supporting "Adolescent friendships predict later resilient functioning across psychosocial domains in a healthy community cohort'

Anne-Laura Van Harmelen, Rogier Kievit, K Ioannidis, Peter Jones, Edward Bullmore, R Dolan, The NSPN Consortium, P Fonagy & Ian Goodyer
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