7,066 Works

A Comprehensive Single Institutional Review of 2 Years in a Designated Fast-Track Sarcoma Diagnostic Clinic Linked with a Sarcoma Specialist Advisory Group: Meeting the Target but Failing the Task?

Zoltan Szucs, Dochka Davidson, Han Hsi Wong, Gail Horan, Philip Bearcroft, Ian Grant, Robert Grimer, Melanie A Hopper, Helen Hatcher & Helena Earl
Background. National guidelines prompted the implementation of a designated two-week wait referral pathway to facilitate the early diagnosis of sarcomas, to improve treatment outcomes. Methods. Patients referred to the Cambridge Sarcoma Diagnostic Clinic between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified through the electronic appointments system. Information was retrospectively retrieved about patient characteristics and details of the diagnostic pathway. Results. 17.3% of patients referred (69/397) were diagnosed with a malignancy. Of these, 59.3% (41/69) had...

Fate mapping of human glioblastoma reveals an invariant stem cell hierarchy

X Lan, David Joerg, FMG Cavalli, LM Richards, LV Nguyen, RJ Vanner, P Guilhamon, L Lee, M Kushida, D Pellacani, NI Park, FJ Coutinho, H Whetstone, HJ Selvadurai, C Che, B Luu, A Carles, M Moksa, N Rastegar, R Head, S Dolma, P Prinos, Cusimano, MD, S Das, M Bernstein … & PB Dirks
Human glioblastomas (GBMs) harbour a subpopulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that drive tumourigenesis. However, the origin of intra-tumoural functional heterogeneity between GBM cells remains poorly understood. Here we study the clonal evolution of barcoded GBM cells in an unbiased way following serial xenotransplantation to define their individual fate behaviours. Independent of an evolving mutational signature, we show that the growth of GBM clones in vivo is consistent with a remarkably neutral process involving a...

Lipocalin 2 Protects from Inflammation and Tumorigenesis Associated with Gut Microbiota Alterations

Alexander R Moschen, Romana R Gerner, Jun Wang, Victoria Klepsch, Timon E Adolph, Simon J Reider, Hubert Hackl, Alexandra Pfister, Johannes Schilling, Patrizia L Moser, Sarah L Kempster, Alexander Swidsinski, Dorothea Orth−Höller, Günter Weiss, John F Baines, Arthur Kaser & Herbert Tilg
High mucosal and fecal concentrations of the antimicrobial siderophore-binding peptide Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) are observed in inflammatory bowel disease. However, Lcn2 function in chronic intestinal inflammation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Lcn2 protects from early-onset colitis and spontaneous emergence of right-sided colonic tumors resulting from IL-10 deficiency. Exacerbated inflammation in Lcn2$^{–/–}$/Il10$^{–/–}$ mice is driven by IL-6, which also controls tumorigenesis. Lcn2$^{–/–}$/Il10$^{–/–}$ mice exhibit profound alterations in gut microbial composition, which contributes to inflammation and tumorigenesis,...

A nested cohort study of 6,248 early breast cancer patients treated in neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy trials investigating the prognostic value of chemotherapy-related toxicities

Jean Abraham, Louise Hiller, Leila Wilson, Anne-Laure Vallier, Janet Dunn, Sarah Bowden, Susan Ingle, Linda Jones, Richard Hardy, Christopher Twelves, Christopher J Poole, Paul Pharoah, Carlos Caldas & Helena Earl
Abstract Background The relationship between chemotherapy-related toxicities and prognosis is unclear. Previous studies have examined the association of myelosuppression parameters or neuropathy with survival and reported conflicting results. This study aims to investigate 13 common chemotherapy toxicities and their association with relapse-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival. Methods Chemotherapy-related toxicities were collected prospectively for 6,248 women with early-stage breast cancer from four randomised controlled trials (NEAT; BR9601; tAnGo; Neo-tAnGo). Cox proportional-hazards modelling was used to...

Multiplex methods provide effective integration of multi-omic data in genome-scale models

Claudio Angione, Max Conway & Pietro Lio
Abstract Background Genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolic variations shape the complex adaptation landscape of bacteria to varying environmental conditions. Elucidating the genotype-phenotype relation paves the way for the prediction of such effects, but methods for characterizing the relationship between multiple environmental factors are still lacking. Here, we tackle the problem of extracting network-level information from collections of environmental conditions, by integrating the multiple omic levels at which the bacterial response is measured. Results To this end,...

Distinct metabolic requirements of exhausted and functional virus-specific CD8 T cells in the same host

Anna Schurich, Laura J Pallett, Danyal Jajbhay, Jessica Wijngaarden, Itziar Otano, Upkar S Gill, Navjyot Hansi, Patrick T Kennedy, Eleni Nastouli, Richard Gilson, Christian Frezza, Sian M Henson & Mala K Maini
T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1hi T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1hi HBV-specific T cells were dependent...

Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries

Shahab Ahmad, Davor Copic, Chandramohan George & Michael De Volder
The flexible batteries that are needed to power flexible circuits and displays remain challenging, despite considerable progress in the fabrication of such devices. Here, it is shown that flexible batteries can be fabricated using arrays of carbon nanotube microstructures, which decouple stress from the energy-storage material. It is found that this battery architecture imparts exceptional flexibility (radius ≈ 300 μm), high rate (20 A g$^−1$), and excellent cycling stability.

Replication and Characterization of Association between ABO SNPs and Red Blood Cell Traits by Meta-Analysis in Europeans

Stela McLachlan, Claudia Giambartolomei, Jon White, Pimphen Charoen, Andrew Wong, Chris Finan, Jorgen Engmann, Tina Shah, Micha Hersch, Clara Podmore, Alana Cavadino, Barbara J Jefferis, Caroline E Dale, Elina Hypponen, Richard W Morris, Juan P Casas, Meena Kumari, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Tom R Gaunt, Fotios Drenos, Claudia Langenberg, Diana Kuh, Mika Kivimaki, Rico Rueedi, Gerard Waeber … & Consortium UCLEB
Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health...

No fixed item limit in visuospatial working memory

Sebastian Schneegans & Paul Bays
Investigations of working memory capacity in the visual domain have converged on the concept of a limited supply of a representational medium, flexibly distributed between objects. Current debate centers on whether this medium is continuous, or quantized into 2 or 3 memory “slots”. The latter model makes the strong prediction that, if an item in memory is probed, behavioral parameters will plateau when the number of items is the same or more than the number...

KIR on the cusp of modern immunogenetics

Francesco Colucci & James Traherne
Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) and their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) ligands play a central role in immunity and human health. These molecules are encoded by gene families with copy number variation, extreme levels of sequence diversity and complex expression patterns. The rapid evolution of KIR and HLA genes and their associations with infectious diseases, pregnancy disorders, immunopathologies and outcome of cell transplantation has generated considerable in-terest from immunologists, geneticists and clinicians. Until recently, however, analyses...

Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching

James Trussler, Roberto Maiolino, Claudia Maraston, Yingjie Peng, Daniel Thomas, Daniel Goddard & Jianhui Lian
Abstract Star-forming galaxies can in principle be transformed into passive systems by a multitude of processes that quench star formation, such as the halting of gas accretion (starvation) or the rapid removal of gas in AGN-driven outflows. However, it remains unclear which processes are the most significant, primary drivers of the SF-passive bimodality. We address this key issue in galaxy evolution by studying the chemical properties of 80,000 local galaxies in SDSS DR7. In order...

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Agustina Martinez Garcia

Renal blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging to measure renal tissue oxygenation: a statement paper and systematic review

Menno Pruijm, Iosif A Mendichovszky, Per Liss, Patricia Van Der Niepen, Stephen C Textor, Lilach O Lerman, C T Paul Krediet, Anna Caroli, Michel Burnier & Pottumarthi Vara Prasad

Shear-sensitive adhesion enables size-independent adhesive performance in stick insects

David Labonte, Marie-Yon Struecker, Aleksandra V. Birn-Jeffery & Walter Federle

7Li NMR Chemical Shift Imaging To Detect Microstructural Growth of Lithium in All-Solid-State Batteries

Lauren E. Marbella, Stefanie Zekoll, Jitti Kasemchainan, Steffen P. Emge, Peter G. Bruce & Clare P. Grey

Temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in InGaN quantum dots

T Wang, TJ Puchtler, Tongtong Zhu, John Jarman, CC Kocher, Rachel Oliver & RA Taylor
We report the experimental observation of temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots using a non-polar (11-20) a-plane InGaN system, up to the on-chip Peltier cooling threshold of 200 K. At 5 K, a statistical average splitting of 443 ± 132 eV has been found based on 81 quantum dots. The degree of fine structure splitting stays relatively constant for temperatures less than 100 K, and only increases above that temperature. At 200 K,...

Sox7 is dispensable for primitive endoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells

Masaki Kinoshita, Daisuke Shimosato, Mariko Yamane & Hitoshi Niwa
Abstract Background Primitive endoderm is a cell lineage segregated from the epiblast in the blastocyst and gives rise to parietal and visceral endoderm. Sox7 is a member of the SoxF gene family that is specifically expressed in primitive endoderm in the late blastocyst, although its function in this cell lineage remains unclear. Results Here we characterize the function of Sox7 in primitive endoderm differentiation using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system. We...

Voltage gated sodium channels as therapeutic targets for chronic pain.

Renee Siu Yu Ma, Kayani Kayani, Danniella Whyte-Oshodi, Aiyesha Whyte-Oshodi, Nitish Nachiappan, Shaene Gnanarajah & Raihan Mohammed
Being maladaptive and frequently unresponsive to pharmacotherapy, chronic pain presents a major unmet clinical need. While an intact central nervous system is required for conscious pain perception, nociceptor hyperexcitability induced by nerve injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is sufficient and necessary to initiate and maintain neuropathic pain. The genesis and propagation of action potentials is dependent on voltage-gated sodium channels, in particular, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9. However, nerve injury triggers changes in their...

Structural and functional analysis of four non-coding Y RNAs from Chinese hamster cells: identification, molecular dynamics simulations and DNA replication initiation assays

Neto Quirino A Lima, Francisco FD Junior, Paulo SA Bueno, Flavio AV Seixas, Madzia P Kowalski, Eyemen Kheir, Torsten Krude & Maria A Fernandez
Abstract Background The genes coding for Y RNAs are evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. These non-coding RNAs are essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vertebrate cells. However thus far, no information is available about Y RNAs in Chinese hamster cells, which have already been used to detect replication origins and alternative DNA structures around these sites. Here, we report the gene sequences and predicted structural characteristics of the Chinese hamster Y RNAs, and...

Detecting the halo heating from AGN feedback with ALMA

S Brownson, R Maiolino, M Tazzari, S Carniani & N Henden
ABSTRACT The Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect can potentially be used to investigate the heating of the circumgalactic medium and subsequent suppression of cold gas accretion on to the host galaxy caused by quasar feedback. We use a deep ALMA observation of HE0515-4414 in band 4, the most luminous quasar known at the peak of cosmic star formation (z = 1.7), to search for the SZ signal tracing the heating of the galaxy’s halo. ALMA’s sensitivity to...

Open-face tunnelling effects on non-displacement piles in clay – part 2: tunnelling beneath loaded piles and analytical modelling

M. G. Williamson, R. J. Mair, M. D. Devriendt & M. Z. E. B. Elshafie

Standard Semen Parameters

Artin Aghazarian, Wolfgang Huf, Heinz Pflüger & Tobias Klatte
The aims of this study were to associate sperm kinematics and standard semen parameters with sperm DNA damage and to evaluate whether the addition of sperm kinematics improve the multivariable prediction of sperm DNA fragmentation compared to standard semen parameters alone. We evaluated sperm kinematics, standard semen parameters, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in 122 men. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association of sperm kinematics and standard semen parameters...

Measuring affective, physiological and behavioural differences in solo, competitive and collaborative games

DG Arellano, L Tokarchuk & Gunes Gunes Smith
© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2017. In this paper, we aim to measure affect and behaviour indicators of players to understand how they feel in different play modes and how games could be improved to enhance user experience, immersion and engagement. We analyse the affective states in sets of two users playing a Wii video game in three play modes: solo, competitive and collaborative. We measured their physiological signals...

A Review of Flaviviruses that Have No Known Arthropod Vector

Andrew Firth & BJ Blitvich
Most viruses in the genus Flavivirus are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts, but some are maintained in arthropod- or vertebrate-restricted transmission cycles. Flaviviruses maintained by vertebrate-only transmission are commonly referred to as no known vector (NKV) flaviviruses. Fourteen species and two subtypes of NKV flaviviruses are recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and Tamana bat virus potentially belongs to this group. NKV flaviviruses have been isolated in nature...

The effect of temperature on the elastic precursor decay in shock loaded FCC aluminium and BCC iron

B Gurrutxaga-Lerma, MA Shehadeh, DS Balint, D Dini, L Chen & DE Eakins
EPSRC under Established Career Fellowship grant EP/N025954/1. Trinity College Cambridge Institute of Shock Physics Research Board and the Faculty of Engineering Dean’s office at the American University of Beirut

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