8,454 Works

Developing new age-specific prostate-specific antigen thresholds for testing for prostate cancer

Rebecca Gilbert, Kate Tilling, Richard M. Martin, J. Athene Lane, Michael Davis, Freddie C. Hamdy, David E. Neal, Jenny L. Donovan & Chris Metcalfe
Abstract: Purpose: To examine whether age-related reference ranges for “normal” prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer. Methods: Subjects were men aged 50–69 years with PSA < 10 ng/mL from the UK-based Prostate Testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. Men with prostate cancer were categorized as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score ≤ 6...

Search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles in final states with two or three leptons at s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

M. Aaboud, G. Aad, B. Abbott, O. Abdinov, B. Abeloos, S. H. Abidi, O. S. AbouZeid, N. L. Abraham, H. Abramowicz, H. Abreu, R. Abreu, Y. Abulaiti, B. S. Acharya, S. Adachi, L. Adamczyk, J. Adelman, M. Adersberger, T. Adye, A. A. Affolder, Y. Afik, T. Agatonovic-Jovin, C. Agheorghiesei, J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, F. Ahmadov, G. Aielli … &
Abstract: A search for the electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos and sleptons decaying into final states involving two or three electrons or muons is presented. The analysis is based on 36.1 fb-1 of s=13 TeV proton–proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Several scenarios based on simplified models are considered. These include the associated production of the next-to-lightest neutralino and the lightest chargino, followed by their decays into final states...

Tracking Procedural Justice in Stop and Search Encounters: Coding Evidence from Body-Worn Video Cameras

Arif Nawaz & Justice Tankebe
Abstract: Research Question: To what extent do police stop-and-search practices, as captured on officers’ body-worn video cameras, adhere to key dimensions of procedural justice theory, and do levels of adherence vary across the dimensions of (1) citizen participation and voice, (2) neutrality and explanation, (3) respect and dignity and (4) trustworthy motives? Data: A random sample of 100 recorded stop-and-search encounters was selected from all 601 encounters recorded by Greater Manchester Police between 1st January...

Modeling narrative structure and dynamics with networks, sentiment analysis, and topic modeling

Semi Min & Juyong Park
Funder: BK Plus 21

Diagnosis and management of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs attending UK primary-care practice

Imogen Schofield, David Brodbelt, Stijn Niessen, Anna Wilson & Dan O’Neill

Dendrochronological evidence for long-distance timber trading in the Roman Empire

Mauro Bernabei, Jarno Bontadi, Rossella Rea, Ulf Büntgen & Willy Tegel
An important question for our understanding of Roman history is how the Empire’s economy was structured, and how long-distance trading within and between its provinces was organised and achieved. Moreover, it is still unclear whether large construction timbers, for use in Italy, came from the widespread temperate forests north of the Alps and were then transported to the sparsely-wooded Mediterranean region in the south. Here, we present dendrochronological results from the archaeological excavation of an...

Integrating machining learning and multimodal neuroimaging to detect schizophrenia at the level of the individual.

Du Lei, Walter H L Pinaya, Jonathan Young, Therese Van Amelsvoort, Machteld Marcelis, Gary Donohoe, David O Mothersill, Aiden Corvin, Sandra Vieira, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Cristina Scarpazza, Celso Arango, Ed Bullmore, Qiyong Gong, Philip McGuire & Andrea Mechelli
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with both structural and functional brain abnormalities. In the past few years, there has been growing interest in the application of machine learning techniques to neuroimaging data for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of this disorder. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have used either structural or functional neuroimaging data, without accounting for the multimodal nature of the disorder. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI...

MNE liability of foreignness versus local firm-specific advantages: The case of the Chinese management software industry

Feng Wan, Peter Williamson & Naresh R. Pandit
Abstract The theory of the multinational enterprise (MNE) suggests that the subsidiaries of MNEs possess firm-specific advantages (FSAs) that can overcome their liability of foreignness (LOF). It also suggests that subsidiaries can gradually decrease their LOF over time as they learn more about the host country environment and develop better connections to local business networks. Accordingly, subsidiaries should outperform local firms not only at point of entry but also (and increasingly so) in the long...

A unique olfactory bulb microcircuit driven by neurons expressing the precursor to glucagon-like peptide 1.

Nicolas Thiebaud, Fiona Gribble, Frank Reimann, Stefan Trapp & Debra Ann Fadool
The presence of large numbers of local interneurons in the olfactory bulb has demonstrated an extensive local signaling process, yet the identification and purpose of olfactory microcircuits is poorly explored. Because the discrimination of odors in a complex environment is highly dependent on the tuning of information by local interneurons, we studied for the first time the role of preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Combining electrophysiological recordings and...

Book Review: Bright Signals: A History of Colour Television

Kirsty Sinclair Dootson

Do older English adults exhibit day-to-day compensation in sedentary time and in prolonged sedentary bouts? An EPIC-Norfolk cohort analysis.

Dharani Yerrakalva, Katrien Wijndaele, Samantha Hajna, Kate Westgate, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Simon J Griffin & Soren Brage
INTRODUCTION:Compensatory behaviours may be one of the reasons for the limited success of sedentary time interventions in older adults, but this possibility remains unexplored. Activity compensation is the idea that if we change activity levels at one time we compensate for them at a later time to maintain a set point. We aimed to assess, among adults aged ≥60 years, whether sedentary time and time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 mins) on one day...

Biomarker Response to Oral Eliglustat in Adults with Gaucher Disease Type 1: Results from 4 Completed Clinical Trials

Neal J Weinreb, Timothy M Cox, Pramod K. Mistry, Joel Charrow, Elena Lukina, Meredith C. Foster & M. Judith Peterschmitt
INTRODUCTION: Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) is caused by hereditary deficiency in activity of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase and lysosomal dysfunction due to abnormal recycling and storage of glycosphingolipids especially in tissue macrophages. Clinical manifestations can include anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and debilitating bone disease. Hematologists care for most patients with GD1 but may be unaware of the importance of plasma biomarkers not only as tissue response surrogates that are useful for monitoring treatment efficacy but also...

Augmenting the randomized controlled trial with real-world data to aid clinical decision making in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Michael Moran, Dana Nickens, Katherine Adcock, Meg Bennetts, Natalie Charnley & Kate Fife
Aim: To evaluate how efficacy outcomes from real-world data (RWD) can support those from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in the context of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patients & methods: PubMed, Ovid, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for RCTs and RWD studies with ≥50 adult patients per arm published in 2000–2017. Outcome measures were median progression-free survival, median overall survival and objective response rate. Results: A total of 13 RCTs...

Novel semiconducting iron–quinizarin metal–organic framework for application in supercapacitors

Surabhi Agrawal, Stuart M. Clarke, Inigo J. Vitorica-Yrezabal, Cheng Liu, Wei Fang, Paul T. Wood & Dominic Wright

Morphological Analysis of Archetypal Calcite Cement

J.A.D. Dickson

Is Agrarian Populism Progressive? Russia Then, India Now

Tom Brass
Examined here is the claim that agrarian populism can be – and is currently – progressive, a view evaluated in relation to recent pro-peasant/farmer-first accounts of rural mobilization in Russia at the start of the 20th century and India at its end. Against this it is argued that agrarian populism cannot be regarded as progressive, for two reasons in particular. First, it overlooks or downplays the fact that capitalism requires of peasant households only their...

Summer Cooling Driven by Large Volcanic Eruptions over the Tibetan Plateau

Jianping Duan, Lun Li, Zhuguo Ma, Jan Esper, Ulf Büntgen, Elena Xoplaki, Dujuan Zhang, Lily Wang, Hong Yin & Jürg Luterbacher
Large volcanic eruptions may cause abrupt summer cooling over large parts of the globe. However, no comparable imprint has been found on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we introduce a 400-yr-long temperature-sensitive network of 17 tree-ring maximum latewood density sites from the TP that demonstrates that the effects of tropical eruptions on the TP are generally greater than those of extratropical eruptions. Moreover, we found that large tropical eruptions accompanied by subsequent El Niño events...

Adjusting for time‐varying confounders in survival analysis using structural nested cumulative survival time models

Shaun Seaman, Oliver Dukes, Ruth Keogh & Stijn Vansteelandt

Identification of a novel heterozygous guanosine monophosphate reductase ( GMPR ) variant in a patient with a late‐onset disorder of mitochondrial DNA maintenance

Ewen W. Sommerville, Ilaria Dalla Rosa, Masha M. Rosenberg, Francesco Bruni, Kyle Thompson, Mariana Rocha, Emma L. Blakely, Langping He, Gavin Falkous, Andrew M. Schaefer, Patrick Yu‐Wai‐Man, Patrick F. Chinnery, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Antonella Spinazzola, Robert W. Taylor & Gráinne S. Gorman

Editorial

Barry Rider

Standard Model fragmentation functions at very high energies

Christian W. Bauer, Davide Provasoli & Bryan R. Webber
AbstractWe compute the leading-order evolution of parton fragmentation functions for all the Standard Model fermions and bosons up to energies far above the electroweak scale, where electroweak symmetry is restored. We discuss the difference between doublelogarithmic and leading-logarithmic resummation, and show how the latter can be implemented through a scale choice in the SU(2) coupling. We present results for a wide range of partonic center-of-mass energies, including the polarization of fermion and vector boson fragmentation...

Costs of switching to low global warming potential inhalers. An economic and carbon footprint analysis of NHS prescription data in England

Alexander J K Wilkinson, Rory Braggins, Ingeborg Steinbach & James Smith
Objectives Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) contain propellants which are potent greenhouse gases. Many agencies propose a switch to alternative, low global warming potential (GWP) inhalers, such as dry powder inhalers (DPIs). We aimed to analyse the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and drug costs of making this switch. Setting We studied National Health Service prescription data from England in 2017 and collated carbon footprint data on inhalers commonly used in England. Design Inhalers were separated into...

Is seniority of emergency physician associated with the weekend mortality effect? An exploratory analysis of electronic health records in the UK

Larry Han, Jason Fine, Susan M Robinson, Adrian A Boyle, Michael Freeman & Stefan Scholtes
Objective Admission to hospital over a weekend is associated with increased mortality, but the underlying causes of the weekend effect are poorly understood. We explore to what extent differences in emergency department (ED) admission and discharge processes, severity of illness and the seniority of the treating physician explain the weekend effect. Methods We analysed linked ED attendances to hospital admissions to Cambridge University Hospital over a 7-year period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December...

Flying in Cyberspace: Policing Global Travel Fraud

Alice Hutchings

Subglacial controls on dynamic thinning at Trinity-Wykeham Glacier, Prince of Wales Ice Field, Canadian Arctic

William D. Harcourt, Steven J. Palmer, Damien T. Mansell, Anne Le Brocq, Oliver Bartlett, Noel Gourmelen, Paul Tepes, Julian A. Dowdeswell, Donald D. Blankenship & Duncan A. Young

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