Happy fish in little ponds: Testing a reference group model of achievement and emotion [accepted manuscript]

Reinhard Pekrun, Kou Murayama, Herbert W. Marsh, Thomas Goetz & Anne C. Frenzel
A theoretical model linking achievement and emotions is proposed. The model posits that individual achievement promotes positive achievement emotions and reduces negative achievement emotions. In contrast, group-level achievement is thought to reduce individuals’ positive emotions and increase their negative emotions. The model was tested using one cross-sectional and two longitudinal datasets on 5th to 10th grade students’ achievement emotions in mathematics (Studies 1–3: Ns = 1,610, 1,759, and 4,353, respectively). Multilevel latent structural equation modeling...
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