Longitude

Gerd Graßhoff, Elisabeth Rinner, Mathieu Ossendrijver, Olivier Defaux, Marvin Schreiber & Emilie Villey
This study traces the development of the concept of geographical longitude: from the ear- liest known Mesopotamian evidence of geographical concepts through its incorporation into mathematical astronomy and to its transmission to ancient Greek philosophy and scholarship. We show that there is a tight connection between the observation of lunar eclipses and the development of a quantitative representation of terrestrial longitudes. It was not until Ptolemy that geographical longitude was systematically quantified through angular differences....
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