In preterm infants, poor postnatal growth is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes; conversely, rapid postnatal growth is supposedly harmful for future development of metabolic diseases. Conclusion: In this systematic review, observational studies reported consistent positive associations between postnatal weight or head growth and neurocognitive outcomes; however, there was limited evidence from the few intervention studies. Evidence linking postnatal weight gain to later adiposity and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in preterm infants was also limited.
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