Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

John A Todd, Marina Evangelou, Antony J Cutler, Marcin L Pekalski, Neil M Walker, Helen E Stevens, Linsey Porter, Deborah J Smyth, Daniel B Rainbow, Ricardo C Ferreira, Laura Esposito, Hunter, Kara MD, Kevin Loudon, Kathryn Irons, Jennie H Yang, Charles JM Bell, Helen Schuilenburg, James Heywood, Ben Challis, Sankalpa Neupane, Pamela Clarke, Gillian Coleman, Sarah Dawson, Donna Goymer, Katerina Anselmiova … & Frank Waldron-Lynch
$\textbf{Background}$ Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4$^+$ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4$^+$ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered...
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