The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

L Malavolta, L Borsato, V Granata, G Piotto, E Lopez, A Vanderburg, P Figueira, A Mortier, V Nascimbeni, L Affer, AS Bonomo, F Bouchy, LA Buchhave, D Charbonneau, AC Cameron, R Cosentino, CD Dressing, X Dumusque, AFM Fiorenzano, A Harutyunyan, RD Haywood, JA Johnson, DW Latham, M Lopez-Morales, C Lovis … & C Watson
We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R⊕ and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M⊕. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b, over 8 quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs...

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