Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis

Mark A Pereira, Alex I Kartashov, Cara B Ebbeling, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Slattery, Jacobs Jr, David R & David S Ludwig
Background. Fast-food consumption has increased greatly in the USA during the past three decades. However, the effect of fast food on risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the association between reported fast-food habits and changes in bodyweight and insulin resistance over a 15-year period in the USA. Methods. Participants for the CARDIA study included 3031 young (age 18–30 years in 1985–86) black and white adults who...
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